# Looking for collaboration

AISL (23LSII@math.moldova.su)
Fri, 28 Jun 1996 16:58:48 +0200

Dear friends:

Since 1989 I have been dealing with the development of different aspects
of uncertainty management in knowledge based systems in the Laboratory
of Artificial Intelligence Systems (Institute of Mathematics, Kishinev,
Moldova). In 1993 I defended my doctor thesis entitled "The matrix
representation of fuzzy knowledge in expert systems". On the basis of
the results obtained in the field of fuzzy knowledge representation and
logical inference I have developed a fuzzy expert system shell EDIP for
DOS and MS-Windows.

The main notion of the approach is attribute model when a problem domain
is described by a number of attributes each of them taking its values
from the finite sets of the values. The universe is defined as Cartesian
product of all sets of the values. Each combination of the values of
attributes represents some state of the problem domain.

In the case there is not any knowledge about the problem domain each
state is supposed to be possible. If something is known on its behavior
some states are disabled. So knowledge in such an approach is
represented by a possibility distribution over the universe. The
problem is that real domains are very large, so we need special
techniques to deal with distributions over them (e.g., if there are 10
attributes each taking 5 values then the universe consists of about
10,000,000 elements and, obviously, it is hardly possible to work with
it in explicit form).

For representing knowledge in the form of possibility distributions a
special language has been developed. Its elementary propositions are
explicitly represented possibility distributions over the sets of the
values which can be combined by logical connectives AND and OR
interpreted conventionally as min and max. Rules describing problem
domain laws are thought of as implications and written in the form of
disjuncts. A set of disjuncts combined with the connective AND
represents a knowledge base in the form of a possibility distribution
over the universe.

The main operation for carrying out logical inference on such a
knowledge base is an original resolution principle which generalizes
classical resolution. This operation is applied to any two disjuncts on
some variable and results in a third disjunct called resolvent. If the
resolution is on kth attribute then kth (non-kth) proposition of the
resolvent is equal to the conjunction (disjunction) of the two
corresponding propositions from the premises. The correctness and some
semantic properties of such rather general definition has been proven.
The resolution was used in the expert system shell EDIP for DOS for
precompiling its knowledge base into the form containing all prime
disjuncts. Once the knowledge base has been compiled (i.e., all prime
disjuncts are found), logical inference on any data in consultation time
is carried out without any delay for one pass.

Unfortunately, this process (i.e., compilation) does not work already
for middle size knowledge bases, therefore in the first version for
MS-Windows we used another method based on transformation form CNF into
DNF (also in compilation time). This method also is not very effective
(as well as, probably, all exact methods), so in the last versions of
the EDIP approximate methods for logical inference have been used.

In fact, all developed techniques are rather general and can be used in
different domains. In particular, there was developed a software system
which used EDIP inference engine for balancing inverted pendulum. The
other field these methods have been applied to is aggregation of fuzzy
information in attribute models.

These results have been published in 26 papers including the following
(internationally accessible):

- Savinov A.A. (1993): Fuzzy propositional logic. Fuzzy Sets and Systems
60(1), 9--17.

- Savinov A.A. (1996): Logic of Possibility Distributions and New
Resolution Principle. International Journal of Uncertainty, Fuzziness
and Knowledge-Based Systems (submitted).

- Levchenko V.I. and Savinov A.A. (1992): The representation of fuzzy
knowledge in the diagnostic expert system shell EDIP. 2nd Int. Conf.
on Fuzzy Logic and Neural Networks---IIZUKA'92, Iizuka, Japan, July
17--22.

- Savinov A.A. (1993): Fuzzy propositional logic for the knowledge
representation. 1st European Congress on Fuzzy and Intelligent
Technologies---EUFIT'93, Aachen, Germany, September 7--10.

- Levchenko V.I. and Savinov A.A. (1994): Diagnosis by fuzzy constraints
in attribute model. 2nd Eur. Congr. on Intelligent Techniques and Soft
Computing---EUFIT'94, Aachen, Germany, September 20--23, 382--385.

- Levchenko V.I. and Savinov A.A. (1994): Using the fuzzy inference
engine EDIP for real time control. Symp. on Artificial Intelligence in
Real Time Control, Valencia, Spain, October 3--5.

- Savinov A.A. (1996): Some Properties of New Resolution Rule in the
Logic of Possibility Distributions. 4th European Congress on
Intelligent Techniques and Soft Computing--EUFIT'96, Aachen, Germany,
September 2--5 (accepted).

them in some domain, then it is possible to make use of the NRC Twinning
Program. Possible research directions for the joint project:

1. development of effective inference techniques for the logic of
possibility distributions;
2. generalization of the logic of possibility distributions onto the
non-monotonic case;
3. development of an effective decision support system based on the
logic of possibility distributions;
4. application of the expert system shell EDIP in different domains.

research, for the research details or for any additional information.

Alexandre Savinov, PhD

Institute of Mathematics
277028 Kishinev
Moldavia
Phone: 373-2-73-81-30
Fax: 373-2-73-80-27
E-mail: 23LSII@math.moldova.su

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National Research Council
Twinning Program 1997-1998
with Belarus, Kazakstan, Moldova, and Romania

------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Office for Central Europe and Eurasia of the National Research
Council (NRC), operating arm of the National Academy of Sciences,
National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine, is accepting
proposals for collaborative research programs which link individual U.S.
scientists with their counterparts in Belarus, Kazakstan, Moldova, and
Romania. As funding for the Twinning Program is provided by the National
Science Foundation, only proposals in fields normally supported by NSF
will be considered. No proposals involving agricultural production; drug
testing or development; research on the diagnosis, etiology or treatment
of physical or mental diseases or disorders; or the use of animal models
of human diseases or conditions will be considered. Proposals should
have the strong support of the scientists' home institutions and should

The Twinning Program requires a two-year commitment beginning in January
1997. Subject to the availability of funding, support will be provided
for travel and living expenses for research visits by American grantees
and junior scientists from the same institution to the countries listed
above and for visits by their foreign counterparts to the U.S.
Applicants may also request modest funding for scientific supplies,
telecommunications fees, and publication costs.

ELIGIBILITY
~~~~~~~~~~~
Applications will be accepted from individuals who are (a) United States
citizens, (b) nationals of a possession of the United States, or (c)
permanent residents of the United States (green card holders). All
applicants must hold a Ph.D., be engaged in research careers (or
research and teaching careers), be affiliated with an educational or
research institution in the United States, and have existing contacts
with researchers and/or institutions in the countries listed above.
Although qualified U.S. specialists of any age are eligible, those who
have received their doctoral degrees within the past six years or who
are entering into an international collaboration for the first time are
strongly encouraged to apply. NRC also welcomes the inclusion of
postdoctoral students and graduate students in the program.

FINANCIAL ARRANGEMENTS
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Grants will generally be in the \$12,000-\$15,000 range (requests for
higher amounts will be considered on a case-by-case basis). Actual
numbers of trips may vary, but projects must include travel in both
directions. Indirect charges are not permitted. A sample budget is shown
below.

* U.S. partner's travel to Europe, \$1,000 x 2 visits: \$3,000
* One-month living expenses for U.S. partner
in Europe, \$1,000 x 2 visits: \$2,000
* European partner's travel to U.S., \$1,500 x 2 visits: \$3,000
* One-month living expenses for European partner
in U.S., \$2,000 x 2 visits: \$4,000
* Scientific supplies/computer fees, \$300 x 4 visits: \$1,200

TOTAL \$13,200

APPLICATION
~~~~~~~~~~~
Each U.S. applicant must submit FIVE copies of the following in the
order listed:

* 3-4 page description and justification of the proposed research,
including a brief descriptive title;
* budget, using basic format provided in example in the front of this
announcement (cost-sharing by the foreign partner is encouraged);
* curriculum vitae of U.S. applicant;
* list of 5-10 of U.S. applicant's recent publications relevant to the
proposed research;
* curriculum vitae of foreign counterpart(s);
* letter from the Dean or other senior official(s) of the U.S.
applicant's institution stating support for the project and indicating
that no indirect charges will be assessed against the grant;
* correspondence with prospective foreign Twinning partner and his/her
institution providing evidence of willingness to participate in
long-term collaboration and outlining benefits of the collaboration
for the foreign partner and his/her institution;
* list of names, affiliations, addresses, and telephone numbers of
several individuals (in the U.S. or Canada) competent in your field of
research who might be qualified to serve as scientific reviewers of
research collaborators, former advisors or students, or persons who
would otherwise have a conflict of interest.

The application must be postmarked no later than SEPTEMBER 2, 1996.
(FO2014), National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20418. Inquiries may be directed to the above address,
phone 202-334-2644, fax 202-334-2614, or Internet <ocee@nas.edu>.

EVALUATION AND SELECTION
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Applications will be evaluated by at least two outside peer reviewers,
with final selection to be made by the NRC. Selection criteria will
emphasize professional accomplishments and qualifications of the U.S.
applicant and foreign partner, the scientific merit of the proposed
research, and its potential benefits to the U.S. and foreign partners
and their institutions. Applications will also be screened for adherence
to eligibility guidelines by NRC staff, and proposals not meeting these
guidelines will be returned without further review. All applicants will
be notified of the outcome of their proposals by late December 1996.

REPORTING REQUIREMENTS
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Grantees will be required to submit an interim report at the end of the
first year of the Twinning partnership and a final report at the end of
the second year detailing and evaluating the success of their
collaborative research.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Office for Central Europe and Eurasia
National Research Council
2101 Constitution Avenue NW
Washington, DC 20418
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