Re: Probability Vs Fuzzy Logic....

From: ca314159 (
Date: Mon May 21 2001 - 20:45:16 MET DST

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    Harris Georgiou wrote:
    > > > Fuzzy theory could be called the macroscopic version
    > > > of quantum theory. Quantum theory could be called
    > > > the microscopic version of fuzzy theory.
    > > >
    > > > The microcosm is very discrete and objective while
    > > > the macrocosm is very analog and subjective.
    > Maybe this is why R.Penrose is so convinced that human
    > intelligence and conscience comes from tiny quantum
    > properties inside (spiking) neurons and signal propagation,
    > rather than a too-complex neural network model for our
    > brain yet to be discovered.
    > And that's why we are far from close to human-like AI in
    > the near future.

    Penrose has many interesting perspectives but I don't look
    for too much closure when reading his works.

    Neural nets don't seem that far removed from the paradigm
    shared by quantum 'theory' (as opposed to the more pragmatic
    'mechanics'), Jaynesian/Bayesian probabilities,
    fuzzy theory, stochastic resonance, memetic algorithms,
    computational linguistics,... they're all what I'd lump
    together and call "diplomatic" algorithms, but I guess one
    could call them "AI", or "semi-deterministic" algorithms
    or something like that.

    For instance, in a state of war, militarization performs
    more like a mechanical juggernaut of boolean logic.
    Such logic is of an extreme practical nature, exacerbated by
    the immediacy and finiteness of spatial and temporal
    constraints. Decisions need to be made immediately
    based on finite and often incomplete information about
    certain spatial/geographical and physical resources.

    Under such a situation, many possible choices are
    excluded well in advance of any decisions, and ultimately
    decisions get made based on only a small set of choices.
    This feeds the requirement for making quick decisions
    in 'classical western' warfare. Boolean logic applied in
    this sense, acts like a multistage filter or sieve.

    A non-classical case of fuzzy warfare is more like
    diplomacy. As many possible choices or options are
    maintained right up to the point of decision, but
    along the way these many choices are refined and
    constrained. This gives the decision makers more
    diversity in the range of choices they can make
    without giving them completely useless or ill-defined

    Instead of discrete filtering or sieving, fuzzy
    logic performs analog parametric amplifications and
    attentuations on the distribution of choices.
    This could be thought of as "filtering" since the lower
    amplitude choices are less likely to be picked, but
    unlike classical boolean filtering, it does not
    eliminate choices completely.

    By sorting the resulting distribution the decision
    maker can look only at the highest amplitude choices
    and pick from them and in such a case the results
    would be very similar to making decisions based on
    a Boolean logic.

    But since all the options are present, even ones
    of low probability, the decision maker has the option
    of picking such low probability choices whereas in
    a Boolean filter they would not even be present at
    the point of decision.

    In many mechanical systems it is often efficient to
    limit the range of choices since the representation of
    many choices requires, space and time and energy
    resources. The overhead of maintaining a continuum of
    choices may be too expensive to implement for an item as
    simple as a binary switch that either turns a light
    on or off. Consider SCR light dimmers for instance;
    although they are useful, they are expensive and
    electrically inefficient in comparison to a simple
    binary switch.

    Light dimmers provide a more sophisticated level
    of options than a binary switch which ideally,
    makes their function more ergonomic and appealing
    to human aesthestics which favor variety and
    continuity more than contrast and closure.

    Fuzzy logic cannot compete with certain characteristics
    of Boolean logic and vice versa. They are intrinsically
    complementary. Every television has both brightness and
    contrast controls and in the analogous sense,
    fuzzy and Boolean logics respectively, are optimized
    to work together; the former providing an analog level
    of user sophistication, while the later provides an
    economical digital level of mechanical operation.

    It is possible to make the distinction between
    fuzzy and Boolean logics transparent in this manner
    but at a lowest levels of implementation, the duality
    that exists between them will become unavoidably
    evident when the limits of resources are considered.
    In such cases, in cases of shear survival, boolean logic
    wins over fuzzy logic simply because in terms of
    limited spatial-temporal resources, it is the more
    efficient process of accounting.

    Every computer has a hardware wordsize limiting its
    physical address space; and software, which can
    transcend that physical limitation by providing
    'virtual' memory, but ultimately all memory is
    in hardware.

    Another analogue of this is that in applied quantum physics,
    the ultimate unit is a "particle" even though it is
    acknowledged that in more sophisticated experiments,
    these discrete particles can have continuous properties.
    Accountings sometimes have to be made, and even fuzzy logic
    reduces to a Boolean logic at the last moment. Whenever a
    decision is made, it is either "made" xor "not made".

    In such 'Cartesian western thinking there are no
    "indecisive decisions" where mechanical actions are
    required to be taken with periodic determinacy.
    In aircraft design, people's lives are stake and although
    there are many senses of fuzzy logic being applied to the design,
    the ultimate question is whether or not someone will take
    the legal and financial responsibility for marketing that
    particular plane.

    In contrast to this, there are "indecisive decisions" made
    by more profound eastern characters such as zen archers,
    bushido samurai,.. etc. This is a level of transcendant
    sophistication over both fuzzy logic and Boolean logic.
    Essentially it "transcends" the ideas of both material
    "spontaneity" and of immaterial "periodic determinacy"
    through both, an observation of the human+universe as
    a situation, and as an idealism as a direction.
    A bushido samurai acts and does not act, decides and
    does not decide; ultimately becoming 'harmonius' in a
    supernatural Shakespearean sense; to be or not to be,
    measure for measure,...

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