# Re: Do we have proofs that human think in a fuzzy (logic) way?

From: Marco Mililotti (mililmar@lucy.dii.unisi.it)
Date: Thu Jan 18 2001 - 07:21:29 MET

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On Tue, 16 Jan 2001, Gordon D. Pusch wrote:
Dear Gordon,
I'm not an expert on the subject. I'm interested in the relations
between FL and human thinking, and the way we can emulate it. So:

> It does not follow that because humans "deal with imprecision and uncertainty"
> they must therefore be using the specific mathematical formalism called
> ``fuzzy logic'' to do so, or that machines using this mathematical formalism
> will ``think'' exactly the same way humans think.
It's right for me. My vision is that FL is the only one that is closest
enought to the way we think. But I'm not an expert in the others kind of
logic, too (Bayesian in primis). First order logic is however too
"simple".

> Many different forms of
> approximate, qualitative, and probabilistic reasoning methods have been
> proposed in the literature; there is no evidence that the human reasoning
> process uses _ANY_ of them.
We can focus on which one emulate better than others the way we think, I
think :)

> Moreover, Cox's Theorem [Cox, R.T.: ``Probability, frequency, and
> reasonable expectation,'' Am. J. Phys. v.14, pp.1--13 (1946)] proves
> conclusively that =ALL= possible approximate reasoning methods other than
> Bayesian Probability Theory fail to be logically self-consistent in some
> way or other --- and that includes fuzzy logic.
Again it's only my thought, but I don't think "human logic" is
self-consistent. So why should we use self-consistent logic to reproduce
it? Maybe, to be self-consistent is a "constrain" to hard if we want to do
logics thougts the way human beings do.

> Hence, if any method of
> approximate reasoning is to be preferred, it would have to be Bayesian
> reasoning. (This is =NOT= to say that _humans_ use Bayesian reasoning,
> but only that _if_ we wish our machines to think in a way compatible with
> logic, Bayesian reasoning has been mathematically proved to be the =ONLY=
> approximate reasoning method that is capable of doing so. Any other method
> --- including Fuzzy Logic --- will necessarily yield logical paradoxes
> and inconsistencies under certain circumstances.)
Exact thought is not a human quality. As a human being I can cope with
paradoxes that I find through my life because of my kind of
human kind of logic. But the /possibility/ of managing such paradoxes is
important I think for human-like logic. Bart Kosko has written: "If human
thought has a logic, in the best of hypothesis it's a fuzzy logic" (or
something similar).

And, just to know interested thoughts, what do you think about the Fuzzy
Associative Memory to reproduce human-like patterns of thought? It seems,
to me, very powerful as it enables us to "Compute With Words" and link a
sequence of computation to reproduce a (fuzzy) logic sequence of
thoughts. I remember that the way human brain processes information is
serially ("... it processes information serially, even though the
underlying neural hardware is operating in parallel..." -> University of
Iowa professor Steven Luck). So I think that a Fuzzy Activation Pattern
in a FAM could in a way or another represent a human thought. What do you
think? Any reference available?

bye,

```--
Strange game.
The only winning move
is not to play.
What about a nice play of chess ?
--
Marco Mililotti
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